BEFORE BRAILLE: RAISED TYPE IN EUROPE
In the nineteenth century innovations in raisedListen typeListen allowed printers to create embossedListen texts that could be read through touch. For the first time the written word became accessibleListen to readers with blindnessListen and visual impairmentListen.
It was only in the late eighteenth century that education for the blind began to include literacyListen as well as vocationalListen skills. At the Royal Institute for Blind Youths in Paris Valentin Haüy experimented with embossed platesListen and wet paper and produced the first tactileListen text in 1786.
The effect of war
Haüy’s experiments were hinderedListen by the French Revolution but the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) revivedListen interest in embossed printing. Charles Barbier, an officer in Napoleon’s army, had invented a writing system of raised dotsListen to help armies communicate in the dark. War left many soldiers with visual impairments caused by injuryListen and diseaseListen. Barbier realised that his “night writing” could help them, and many others with similar impairments, to read. In 1821 he presented it at the National Institute for Blind Youths in Paris. One audience member was a young Louis Braille, who would become the father of tactile type as we know it today.
CompetingListen systems – arbitraryListen or alphabetical signs?
The road to Braille was not straightforwardListen and several competing types appeared in first half of the nineteenth century. Should the raised letters reflectListen the alphabet or should abstract symbolsListen be used instead? There were argumentsListen for both sides:
The first embossed type in Britain was the “triangular alphabet” designed by James Gall, a founder of the Royal Blind School in Edinburgh. Gall made the letters out of angularListen lines so that they could be understood by blind and sightedListen people alike. Gall claimed that his students could read slowly after only an hour’s practice but he made little progress outside Edinburgh.
In 1832 The Society of Arts for Scotland held a competition for the best embossed type. There were 15 entries but Edmund Fry’s alphabetical system of roman capitalsListen triumphedListen. Shortly afterwardsListen, John Alston began printing at the Glasgow AsylumListen for the Blind using a slightlyListen modified version of Fry’s design. “Alston type” provedListen popular and inspired similar forms across Europe and North America.
The rise of Braille
In Paris, Louis Braille had adaptedListen Barbier’s designs so that each symbol could be recognisedListen with one fingertipListen. In 1829 he published the first braille alphabet. It was popular with students at the National Institute but was not officially adoptedListen there until 1854.
In Britain, Braille was even slower to take holdListen but campaigners like Thomas Rhodes Armitage and the British and Foreign Blind Association were gainingListen influence. Armitage insisted that “the question must not be settledListen for the blind, but by the blind themselves”. By 1870 the existing systems had been tested and the BFBA judges (all blind themselves) concludedListen that Braille was the best. There were still many years and revisionsListen to go but the reignListen of alphabetical embossed type was over. In 1882 Armitage announcedListen that outside North America “there is now probably no institution in the civilized world where Braille is not used.”
Today, Braille is instantlyListen recognisableListen as the writing system used by the blind and visually impaired.
Autor: Moray Teale, Rise of Literacy Project Coordinator. Źródło artykułu: Europeana Foundation. Licencja CC BY-SA 4.0.
Definicje i przykłady zdań pochodzą ze słownika Cambridge Dictionary.
raised /reɪzd/ – lifted up, higher;
wzniesiony, tu: wypukły
type /taɪp/ – the style and size of printed letters used in a piece of printed writing such as in a newspaper, book, or article;
emboss /ɪmˈbɒs/ – to decorate an object, especially with letters, using special tools that make a raised mark on its surface;
wytłaczać (np. wzory)
accessible /əkˈses.ə.bəl/ – able to be reached or easily got;
blindness /ˈblaɪnd.nəs/ – the condition of being unable to see;
impairment /ɪmˈpeə.mənt/ – deterioration in the functioning of a body part, organ, or system that can be temporary or permanent and can result from injury or disease;
literacy /ˈlɪt.ər.ə.si/ – the ability to read and write
alfabetyzm, piśmienność, umiejętność czytania i pisania
vocational /vəʊˈkeɪ.ʃən.əl/ – providing skills and education that prepare you for a job;
plate /pleɪt/ – a flat piece of metal with words and/or pictures on it that can be printed;
tactile /ˈtæk.taɪl/ – related to the sense of touch; if something is tactile, it has a surface that is pleasant or attractive to touch;
hinder /ˈhɪn.dər/ – to limit the ability of someone to do something, or to limit the development of something;
powstrzymywać, utrudniać, hamować
revive /rɪˈvaɪv/ – to come or bring something back to life, health, existence, or use;
wznawiać, przywracać do życia
dot /dɒt/ – a very small round mark;
injury /ˈɪn.dʒər.i/ – physical harm or damage to someone’s body caused by an accident or an attack;
uraz, uszkodzenie, kontuzja
disease /dɪˈziːz/ – (an) illness of people, animals, plants, etc., caused by infection or a failure of health rather than by an accident;
straightforward /ˌstreɪtˈfɔː.wəd/ – easy to understand or simple;
prosty, przystępny, prostolinijny
arbitrary /ˈɑː.bɪ.trər.i/ – based on chance rather than being planned or based on reason;
compete /kəmˈpiːt/ – to try to be more successful than someone or something else;
reflect /rɪˈflekt/ – to show, express, or be a sign of something;
odzwierciedlać, być wynikiem
argument /ˈɑːɡ.jə.mənt/ – a reason or reasons why you support or oppose an idea or suggestion, or the process of explaining these reasons;
abstract /ˈæb.strækt/ – used to refer to a type of painting, drawing, or sculpture that uses shapes, lines, and colour in a way that does not try to represent the appearance of people or things; existing as an idea, feeling, or quality, not as a material object;
abstrakcyjny, zbyt ogólny, niekonkretny
angular /ˈæŋ.ɡjə.lər/ – having a clear shape with sharp points;
sighted /ˈsaɪ.tɪd/ – able to see, not blind;
capital /ˈkæp.ɪ.təl/ – a letter of the alphabet in the form and larger size that is used at the beginning of sentences and names;
wielka litera, wersalik
triumph /ˈtraɪ.əmf/ – to have a very great success or victory;
afterwards /ˈɑːf.tə.wədz/ – after the time mentioned;
potem, później, następnie
asylum /əˈsaɪ.ləm/ – a mental hospital, or any other institution giving shelter and other help to poor or suffering people;
azyl, przytułek, schronienie, szpital psychiatryczny
slightly /ˈslaɪt.li/ – a little;
prove /pruːv/ – to show a particular result after a period of time;
okazywać się, udowadaniać
adapt /əˈdæpt/ – to change, or to change something, to suit different conditions or uses;
przystosowywać, dostosowywać (się), adaptować
recognise /ˈrek.əɡ.naɪz/ – to know someone or something because you have seen or heard him or her or experienced it before;
fingertip /ˈfɪŋ.ɡə.tɪp/ – the end of a finger;
koniuszek / opuszka palca
adopt /əˈdɒpt/ – to accept or start to use something new;
take hold /ˈteɪk həʊld/ – to become strong; to be established;
zakorzeniać, utrwalać się
gain /ɡeɪn/ – to get something that is useful, that gives you an advantage, or that is in some way positive, especially over a period of time;
zyskiwać, zdobywać, osiągać
settle /ˈset.əl/ – to arrange something;
ustalać, decydować, załatwiać
conclude /kənˈkluːd/ – to judge or decide something after thinking carefully about it;
dochodzić do wniosku, wywnioskować
revision /rɪˈvɪʒ.ən/ – a change that is made to something, or the process of doing this;
reign /reɪn/ – a period when a particular person, feeling, or quality is very important or has a strong influence;
announce /əˈnaʊns/ – to make something known or tell people about something officially;
instantly /ˈɪn.stənt.li/ – immediately;
natychmiast, od razu
recognisable /ˈrek.əɡ.naɪ.zə.bəl/ – easy to recognise;